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Page history last edited by FranJLte 1 year, 7 months ago

Population development

Lesson Plan

Previous knowledge:

Define these concepts:

  • mortality: the number of people who die over a year in a particular place
  • natural increase: the difference between the number of births and deaths in a population.
  • life expectancy: the average number of years that a person can be expected to live according to statistics
  • emigration: departure from one´s own country or region  to live and work in another one
  • immigration: arrival in a country or region different to one´s own to live and work there
  • population density: the result of dividing  the total number of inhabitants by the area of land occupied in square kilometres. It is expressed in: inhabitants/km2
  • unemployed population: people of working age who don´t  have a job but who want and are looking for one
  • literacy rate: proportion of people over 15 who can read and write 
  • natural population change: changes in population because of biological reasons (birth or death)
  • migration: population movement that involves a change of job and residence
  • population structure: classification of a population based on different criteria like: age, sex and work status
  • economics: science that studies how to use resources to meet people needs
  • natural resource: basic resource provided by nature, such as water and wood



Population refers to all people who live in a particular area.

Demography is the study of the development, distribution, births, deaths and changing structure of human population. To obtain information  about the population we use different sources: census and municipal register. During most of the 20th century the world population grew very quickly. Since 1980s, population growth has fallen. Currently, in developed countries population growth is static or negative; in less-developed countries population growth is higher.



Population density is calculated by dividing the total number of inhabitants by the area of land occupied (in KM2)

The areas with higher population density are those with physical or human  conditions make them more attractive. The demographic deserts areas are those with conditions that make human settlement difficult.



Natality: is the number of people born over a year in a particular area

Mortality: is the number of people who die over a year in a particular area

Natural increase: is the difference between the number of births and deaths in a population



  • Regular population movement does not involve change of residence:
    • commuting (residence-work)
    • leisure: movement related to free time
  • Migratory movement: change of job and place of residence. It could be internal (same country) or external (one country to another):
    • emigration: refers to people leaving a particular area
    • immigration:  refers to people arriving to live in a particular place




Population can be classified according to different criteria:

  • by sex:
    • men
    • women
  • by age:
    • young
    • adults
    • elderly
  • by economic activity:
    • active population
      • employed
      • unemployed
    • inactive 
      • minors
      • retired 

The population of Europe and Spain

    • It has over 735 million inhabitants
    • It´s one of the highest population density in the world
    • The birth rate is low and less that the death rate: natural increase is negative
    • Life expectancy is very high (75)
  • SPAIN:
    • 46 million inhabitants
    • The population density is average, 92.39 inhabitants/km2)
    • The birth rate and death rate are low
    • Life expectancy is over 81


  • Less-developed countries:
    • birth rate is high and death rate is low, so the rate of natural increase is high. Poverty and famine force  many people to emigrate
    • government promote birth control
  • Developed countries
    • Low birth rate and death rate tends to rise, so the rate of natural increase is very low, sometimes even negative
    • Countries have ageing population so birth is encouraged by offering finalcial or social benefits (maternity or paternity leave, state nurseries, ..)



  • natural resources: basic resources can be used as energy resources
    • non-renewable (coal, oil, natural gas, uranium, ...)
    • renewable (solar energy, wind power, hydroelectric power ...)



Economic activity produces economic assets:

  • goods: material objects, such as books or computers
  • services: activities carried out for the benefit of society, such as transport, health, education, etc


Factors of production are different type of resource used in the production of goods and services:

  • natural resources such as water, light, plants, animals
  • labour:  human resources
  • capital:  means of production used in the production of economic goods: money, machinery, vehicles, buildings, etc




  • family: buy products and receive services
  • company: it has employees to whom it pays a salary
  • state: it provides services to the citizen and collect taxes



  • maternity/paternity leave: period of time during which the mother or father of a newly born or adopted baby receives money from the state to stop working and look after the child
  • nursery:  place where preschool children are looked after, normally while their parents are at work
  • raw material: resource that industry tranforms into finished products
  • NGO:  non governmental organisation, international organization that works, among other things, to reduce underdevelopment, its causes and consequences. Most of the members are volunteers.










Useful links:


1.- Look at the chart and answer the questions:

                                     YEAR:                                                                                     WORLD POPULATION (million) 

1700  600    
1750  629 
1800  813 
1850  1 128 
1900  1 150 
1950  2 400 
2000  6 122 
2050  9284 


a) How many people inhabited  the Earth in the year 1750? and in the year 2000? by how much has the population increased between these two dates?

b) Between which years did the world population increase the most?

c) How many people will inhabit our planet the year 2050?

2.- Explain how we calculate population density.

    Consult an atlas and look at the map of global population density. answer with a partner:

a) What is the population density of the following areas of the world?

  •  The interior of Brazil
  • The north of Canada 
  • The east of China 
  • The coast of India
  • Central Europe

Make sentences like this:  The interior of Brazil has a low population density.



















     Society is an organised comunity of people with common characteristics. Societies are organised into social groups. In societies there are different cultures; there are also diverse demographic, linguistic, economic and educational factors.

  • Types of societies
    • hyerarchical:organised in the shape of a pyramide
    • dynamic: everyone has the same rights and obligations


Discrimination and social confrontations lead to conflicts.



Throughout history many cultures have evolved:

  • Western society, predominant in Europe
  • Muslim society
  • Oriental society
  • African society



Population is ageing, high inmigration, small families, economically developed.

SPANISH SOCIETY is similar to the rest of Europe.

In Wester society, discrimination is caused by economic and cultural factors, among others and the state and its citizens should prevent it.


Institutions: government, legislators and judges. the Spanish state  is regulated and organised into municipalities, provinces and regional comunities.


Settlement refers to the action of people establishing themselves in a particular place. There are two types of settlement:

  • rural settlement: people live in houses scattered around the countryside or close together and work mainly in primary sector activities
  • urban settlement: the population live close together in cities and work in secondary sector ( insudtry, construction) or tertiary sector (transport, education, etc)



  • society: comunity of people who live in the same country or region for a long time and share the same organisations, laws and common objectives
  • state: political organisation of a comunity under one government
  • values: principles or ideas that guide the behaviour of people and human society
  • political party: organisation of people with a common ideology, whose aim is to gain political power
  • literacy rate: percentage of people over 15 who can read and write
  • hierarchy: classification into different categories according to status or authority.
  • Western: term which, in a cultural sense, referred initially to Europe. Today it includes parts of the world where the culture is prodiminantly European.









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